יום שישי, 13 בדצמבר 2013

Nazi policy towards the Jews in 1933-39

Nazi policy towards the Jews in 1933-39

Nazi policy towards the Jews in 1933-39

eve of the Nazi regime in Germany, lived about 600 thousand Jews constituted a little less than 1 percent of the population. On - according to constitution of the Weimar Republic they enjoyed full civil rights and have integrated all aspects of life in the country. At the same time, has strengthened anti-Semitism in the country thanks to the propaganda of the Nazi Party and that Jews caused the defeat of Germany in World War 1.
Nazis carried out a number of actions against the Jews in Germany. Actions occur gradually, as the Nazi regime was not based leaders still feared public opinion in Germany and abroad.
Primary purposes ofthe anti - Jewish policies in 1933-39 were:
·        Separation of Jews from German society.
·        Displacing and removal financially.
·        Encouraging their departure from the country.
This took the Nazis three key measures:
·        Propaganda.
·        Legislation.
·        Terrorism.

Their Nazi policy during these years can be divided into three periods, or three stages:
the first period (1933-1934):  a period characterized by propaganda in the media and education, and harm employment and economic life.
Period II (Spring 1935 to 1937) was characterized by isolation Legal and rejection of the society and the state. Peak period was the enactment of the racial laws (the Nuremberg Laws) in 1935.
Third period (1938-1939) period is marked by overt violence, terrorism and economic exclusion. The culmination of the period was a pogrom "Kristallnacht 'on 9 November 1938.



Stage I (first period) - social isolation and economic
one.     04.01.1933 Economic Boycott Day
background boycottboycott imposed by German Jews who managed to see Hitler's intentions to harm Jews. These were mostly people who read Mein Kampf.
When Hitler came to power he wanted to reduce the "detrimental effect" of the Jews on the economy and therefore wanted to announce a boycott of their stores. The boycott idea was distributed throughout Germany and the Germans were not to buy Jewish goods.
On April 1, 1933 was the day of the boycott, which raided the SA and the SS centers - Jewish businesses, damaged equipment and goods, repayment of Jewish neighborhoods and beat Jews. The boycott was under the supervision of Joseph Goebbels, the propaganda minister. Shifts of the SS - Oh storefronts were prevented Jews to enter German audience. Distributed anti-Semitic materials, ordered to continue the economic boycott of Jews. Boycott day was the first major step against the Jews in Nazi Germany.

Goals boycott
  1. remove Jews from their property and separate them from the German population.
  2. Seal ring in Nazi German population, the ideology will reach all levels of society and look 'creating a new order. " This is done with common - hatred of Jews.
  3. Means to battle the Nazi ideology of bourgeois class, in harm's way in the same segment with the Jews. Many Jews in Germany engaged in trade and economic boycott was to destroy the entire Jewish community.
  4. Causing social differentiation of the Jews and force them to emigrate from Germany, allowing the German bourgeois economic development rather than Jews.
  5. Unification of the Nazi Party and testing the ability of the organization and operation of the party. There were extremists who called for immediate action, and Hitler feared anarchy in the party and therefore channeled their anger towards the Jews.

Responses boycott:
  1. World Reaction was immediate. Many countries have announced economic boycott on Germany. Nazis panicked and stopped the economic boycott that day.
  2. Hostile public opinion in Germany against Hitler - Hitler was not strong enough to sustain a long-term boycott, anti-Semitism was not yet strong enough in Germany, so the ban lasted only one day. (Damage to the Germans who cooperated with the Jews economically).

Important tonote:there was an order of Hitler and the party leaders not to harm Jews. They knew that Germany was not yet ready. It was Hitler's attempt to feel the surface.

2.     Sabbath law the Professional Civil Service (law ​​clerks.)
In April 1933 was enacted "professional civil rehabilitation law," instructed the officials - Aryans quit their jobs in government ministries. 2,000 Jews were fired from their jobs in government offices, educational institutions, in - law, in the press and entertainment centers. Like - well, work stopped Jewish doctors HMOs.



3.     Measures of cultural and social isolation:
book burning. 05/10/1933
May 1933 auction held book-burning Babylon square in Berlin, which were burned writings of Jewish authors and journalists condemned the Nazi regime. Like - well not be used in fruit Jewish culture such as music, plays, Physics (Albert Einstein), psychology (Sigmund Freud). In addition, they burned books of anti-war writers (Maria Remarque example) stay pacifist.
Well as members of the SA participated in the burning of the books, but they were mostly students and professors from the universities of Berlin enthusiastic impressionable. Also book burning took place under the direction of Goebbels, the Nazi propaganda minister.

September 1933 the government established a new culture department, coordinated the areas of culture. Jews were no ranks of professionals, and the number of higher education institutions has been limited to one percent. Thieu, and denied any involvement in cultural activities. Jews were confined in occupational




agitprop media and education:
the press - "Der Stuermer" was anti-Semitic German weekly magazine presented the Jews as an enemy of Germany's largest and humanity. First page header always appeared saying: "The Jews are our misfortune." Posted Kiktorot pornographic antisemitism which featured Jewish characters was contempt and disgust and having unbridled lust.
Cinema and literature: Show Jewish parasite and harmful biological profaning the Aryan race which must perish - film "Jud Suess" and "The Eternal Jew". These messages were also transferred to the games, children's books and educational materials in German schools.


Stage (second period) - legal isolation
Nuremberg Laws. 09.15.1935
Nuremberg laws were formulated at the Nazi Party Congress in Nuremberg annual, on 15 September 1935, their goal was to deny civil rights of anyone who does not meet this definition. On November 14 of that year, Fort basic law, and specifically directed against Jews. Racism became state lawprevented Jews the ability to defend against anti-Semitism legalmeans. Emancipation completelycanceled,and the Jews have become second-class subjects. The Constitution established the Jews are denied citizenship and whose status is that of subjects deprived of any civil or political rights, including the right to legal defense. January 3, 1936 has been extended applicability rules to include Gypsies area of the Reich.

Rules:
"Reich Citizenship Law" - Held that only those of German blood, the behavior of Nazi Germany and the residents will be given German citizenship. Created a distinction between "citizen" and"citizen."Setup has determined that a Jew can not be a citizen of the Reich, and therefore not deserving political rights, including voting rights and the possibility of tenure in public office, in addition is not entitled to legal protection. This law was accompanied by Regulation important defining who is a Jew"is a Jew who three of his grandfathers were full Jews."

"Lawfor the Protection of German Blood and GermanHonor" - The law forbade marriage between Jews and Germans, and canceled marriages exist; forbidden sexual intercourse with Jews; Jews were forbidden to employ maids (under 45) and German workers to avoid the supremacy of the Jews over the Germans and having relationships with employees (who might bring birthrate), Jews were forbidden to fly the German flag or make use of colors, so as not to defile, but they were allowed to display Jewish symbols like the Star of David.

meanings of the Nuremberg Laws
1. Nuremberg Laws sponsored illegal attitude of Germans toward the Jews. These could not defend themselves because they are not legal citizens.
2. Nuremberg laws directed against Jews as a people, as a community separate and apart from the - according to race. Germans isolated the Jews from the rest of the citizens of the Reich.
3. Nuremberg Laws are another step towards the Jews physical injury.
4. The Germans were openly without fear of reprisal rest of the world. Hitler underestimated because no country would respond vigorously actions against the Jews.

Stage III (Third period - 1938 = year of change: terrorism, violence and expulsion)
1.     Anti-Semitic laws.
Held the Olympics in 1936 in Berlin. Jews were allowed to participate in the Olympic Games and assign them to special plots. Hitler believed that if you do not allow Jews to participate in the Olympic Games which will lead to unpleasant consequences in foreign policy. During the Olympics were removed signs prohibiting Jews entry to public places of the city centers and the various tourist destinations.
Immediately after the Olympics ended temporary calm and Jews were discriminated more strongly in their country.Illusion that the situation is improving shattered in 1938 which became aturning point in relation to the authorities towards the Jews. There was the most serious blow against the Jews of Germany who was accompanied by physical violence organized by the regime itself.
Jewish economic suppressed that began in 1933 was exacerbated in winter 1938. Process calledAryanization - expropriation of houses - a business and transfer of property from Jews and Aryans: the denial of work permits - that the lawyer, exclusion of Jews from working as a stage in the process of detachment from the economy in the country.
Accelerated anti-Semitic legislation included the following:
ü      Their identity card, the Jews had to add the names Israeli men and singing women for identification. Passports of Jews added the letter "J" (Jude).
Ü      Streets with names of Jews in German names were changed.
Ü      Jews were forbidden to enter public parks, swimming pools and beaches. Benches throughout Germany were marked inscriptions forbidding Jews to sit on them, trains were tracked Jews seats. If the car was full of Jews were forced to give way. For many businesses hung signs reading: "Entrance to dogs and Jews."
Ü      Jews were forbidden to trade on the stock exchange, the Germans were not allowed to maintain trade relations with the Jews, to get treatment from doctors Jews or Jewish lawyers services. Jews who wanted to leave Germany had to leave all possessions behind and pay "no escape".
Ü      Jewish children were forced to leave the schools studied. Importantly, the annexation of Austria (March 1938), the Nazi anti-Semitic policies also 200 thousand Austrian Jews.

March 1938 Germany annexed Austria (Anschluss "). Following the annexation, Reich added 200 thousand Jews, who are also subject to the Nuremberg laws. German Ministry for JewishAffairs,which was headed by Adolf Eichmann, was responsible for making laws against the Jews and their expulsion from Austria. Jews were stripped of their possessions and were forced to migrate to an area outside of Germany or even outside the areas controlled by Germany, according to the decision of the Nazis. The confiscated money was used to finance their deportation, and the remainder underwent the German treasury.
Recordactivity anti-Semiticin Germany took place at the event dubbed "Kristallnacht."

2.     Kristallnacht (the night of 9 to 10 November 1938).
Lille - Kristallnacht, which took place all over Germany pogrom. So named because of the many shards of glass panes were shattering result in business and residence of the Jews. It was coined by the Nazis in order to downplay double damage pogrom (no more broken glass)

background of Kristallnacht
on November 7, 1938, Herschel Grynszpan shot of a young German Jew who fled to Paris 17, Ernst vom Rath, secretary of the German embassy in Paris and injured. Motivation of the Greenspan was a letter he received from his family where he was told that his family was deported to Poland, as part of deportationZbaszyn,along with 17,000 German Jews of Polish origin. Greenspan letter describing all the difficult events that happened to his family during this exile, which was the first in a series of actions to deport Jews from Germany.
Attempted assassination sparked outrage in Nazi circles. The next day, the party newspaper, under the direction of Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels, brutally attacked Jews on the act. That night there were a number of local groups of marauding thugs Nazis who burned synagogues and hit the Jews and their property.
Following day died vom Rath wounds, and that, in fact, completed pretext he needed and the signal for a pogrom.



Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht took place on the anniversary of the putsch Home DC (1923). All over the Reich Party members gathered to indicate. Hitler and the party leaders came to Munich, a city of origin of the Nazi movement and gathered at the town hall old.
After consulting with Hitler privately began Goebbels to organize the party activists and the SA to conduct a pogrom conceived and well coordinated Jews, first in Munich and then in Berlin and all over the Reich. It was officially spontaneous eruption of the Germans, but was in fact designed top, as indicated by the order of Heydrich, SS given one o'clock.
Pogrom destroyed almost every synagogue in Germany, many Jewish cemeteries, thousands of Jewish-owned stores and 29 shops supermarket. More than thirty thousand Jews were arrested, often - according to lists prepared in advance and sent to concentration camps. About 400 Jews were killed and hundreds more were seriously injured. Some Germans have "looked Jewish" were also murdered.
Directive from above, the police refrained from interfering with the rioters or restore order. Raging fires were extinguished only in places where there was danger of the spread of the homes and property of non-Jewish. Destruction, abuse and murder lasted all night undisturbed and stopped in the morning, either express provision above.

Consequences of Kristallnacht
following days brought sharp condemnation of interference from all over the world. Germany, however, those days were marked by accusing the Jewish victims of crime perpetrated against them responsibly and taking a series of punitive measures against the Jews in Germany.

Decided that insurance companies will pay the property damage (estimated at hundreds of millions of marks), not to the Jews but to the Reich. It also imposed a fine Jews billion mark, in addition to the cost of repair and reconstruction of the property. Another decree forbade Jewish participation in the economy from January 1, 1939. In the following weeks many orders have been added, such as an order prohibiting Jews from holding a driver's license and an order closing the Jewish schools.

Importance of Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht marks an escalation of anti-Semitic activities of the Nazi state. Harassment, verbal abuse and the gradual exclusion of German Jews out - the pogrom, physical violence and murder nationwide. The aims for the Nazis achieved to a great extent: Jewish emigration from Germany accelerated and 80,000 Jews left the area Reich period between the end of 1938, the outbreak of World War II. Under the leadership of Goering, even the 'Aryanization' - the expulsion of the Jews in the German economy, took place especially after Kristallnacht, as collective punishment for the damage allegedly caused by the Jews. With the flight of the Jews from the land of the Reich, their property stolen by the Nazis.

Despite the angry reactions around the world and several countries' decision to sever diplomatic relations with Germany, the Germans realized that the world's response to the murder of Jews is not significantly determined. This paved the way for the destruction of European Jewry during the Holocaust.



Jewish response to Nazi policies in 1933-39
during the six years between the rise of Nazism and the outbreak of the war of the Jews in Germany were characterized by persistent tension between the desire to maintain normal patterns of human existence, on the one hand, and the attempt to understand the difficulties going and growing. Legislative anti - Jewish Shortly after the Nazis came to power in 1933 and the economic boycott of the April Fool German Jews made ​​it clear that they are facing a new era. However, because of Nazi Jewish policy was not - consistent and highly ranked, German Jews had a hard time understanding what they have in store for this era. The following are ways of dealing and various reactions of Jews to the new situation they find themselves:
1.     Migration: Many Jews were convinced that this was a passing wave of anti-Semitism can not be one of the most culturally advanced world enable public barbaric behavior of the government. Many hoped that soon will be replaced by the regime or he will moderate his actions. Thousands of Jews immigrated in the early years of Western European countries neighboring the hope that they will be able to return to Germany when the winds calm down (about 60,000 on 1933 to 1934). As measures became tougher immigration areas became even more remote. Jews immigrated to the United States, South Africa, South America, Australia and, of course Country - Israeli framework of the Fifth Aliyah, promotion checks. Transfer agreement signed between the Jewish Agency and the German Economy Ministry in August 1933, which stated that Jews deposited their money in the fund German, and proceeds will be sent to Israel as commodities German contributed to many. important to note that until the beginning of World War II half of German Jews had left it (migrated). others stayed because it was difficult to leave a country, the Jews lived for years in terms of culture, language and financially. many Jews wanted to prove their loyalty to the state, immigration could have been interpreted as a lack of patriotism. many countries closed their doors to immigrants for economic and racial. Additionally, the Nazis denied Jews to leave with their property. Jews, who feared that their property will be confiscated, delayed their departure from Germany.
2.     Internal organization of individuals and groups: as the years went Jews were pushed out of the cultural life, social and economic Germany. As a result they had to create alternative frames. For example: rose houses - Jewish schools where students acquired general education and Jewish education. Special emphasis is learning Hebrew and Zionism. Throughout Germany, dozens of Hebrew-language newspapers, theaters which arose were plays by Jewish actors. Socially, rose entities that provided money and charity to Jewish families in need. Were set up vocational training centers that are designed to provide options to work for Jews who were fired from their jobs. Strengthened in religious spiritual Relationship with Judaism. Jewish leaders tried to hearten the Jews as the chief rabbi of Berlin Leo Baeck. papers written by Robert Welch, the editor of a Zionist newspaper in Germany is called German Jews to be proud of their Judaism, rally around and act as one body to deal with anti-Semitic policy. stated , were also organizing groups, such as:
·        "Central Association of citizens of the Mosaic faith": Society's first reaction was confusion and indecision. The main trend in the early years was to maintain the legal status of the Jews. Association members expressed reservations about great migration, and the name at this time than the Jewish community than the Jews as individuals - highlighting its rights and independence of the Jewish community.
·        "The National Alliance of Jewish Frontline Soldiers": It was a representation of Jews served in the German army during WWI. Members emphasized the integration of Jews into German society and loyalty to German nationalism. They saw themselves as Germans for everything. When anti-Jewish legislation was this group tried to get exemptions to the population it represents (and veterans of the war.) In April 1933 following a ban, she also received assistance from President Hindenburg prevented discrimination, but the execution of the Nuremberg Laws are no longer able to prevent.

3.     Strengthening of Zionism: Over 30s stronger German Zionism Jews realized that they have no future in this country and see in Israel a possible solution to their problems. Many young Jews began to learn Hebrew, received agricultural training and immigrated to Israel as part movement "Youth Aliyah" it established Reha sucker and Henrietta Szold. About 65 thousand Jews came to Israel as part of the Fifth Aliyah.

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